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全球20大集装箱运输公司现状分析(一)

作者:    发布时间:2011-09-06    浏览量:4893   字体大小:  A+   A- 

来源:American shipper    发表日期:8/30/2011 14:24:29
世界集装箱公司20强
中型航运公司瞄准了最近的大型集装箱船订购
By Eric Johnson
    航运界由于集装箱运力的改变而陷入了僵局,许多世界大型航运企业在过去的12个月内做出了它们的重大变动。也就是说,它们加入了大型航运市场,订购大型集装箱船。同样,成本巨大。整个航运界的更新,2010创纪录的收益,一些中型企业开始动摇了。
    虽然货运价格暴跌和油价飙升,但最好不要让这些短期的经济现象分散我们的注意力,那就是2011年真正的大新闻:超大型集装箱船的涌入正逐步成为航运产业的龙头。
    由于American Shipper 发布了去年集装箱企业前20强的报告“(2010年9月、44—52页)不少于5家运营商之前打算订购容量为13,000TEU的集装箱船或是更多运营商都已经选择了购买大型集装箱船。
    对任何一家航运公司来说,大型船舶订单都不应该是没有意义的。像APL, Hapag-Lloyd, hanjin Shipping, Hyundai Merchant Marine and OOCl,这段时间一直很保守的企业也开始船舶订购,加入了大型货船的竞争中。它们加入了欧洲航运企业的三大巨头— Maersk Line, Mediterranean Shipping Co. and CMA CGM —中国的航运公司,中国远洋运输集团,中国海运集团以及Zim 和United Arab Shipping Co,这些船公司都运营集装箱或加入船舶的订购中。
最近几个月的大型集装箱船的订单引发了一系列问题,这些订单具有积极还是消极作用?是否能真正帮助船舶公司在生产成本上与欧洲三大航运企业竞争?
   东方货柜航运公司(东方海外总公司)投资关系总监,Stanley Shen在8月的American Shipper 透露:“拥有这种大型船只能够帮助我们与竞争对手站在同一竞争平台上。”东方海外在三月与五月间订购了10艘容量为13,000TEU集装箱船,其中4艘经过了NYK航运公司的特许,NYK是东方海外在大联盟中的合作伙伴。
  “ 当行业中的伙伴订购了同样大小的船只,那将更容易扩宽我们的服务圈。“Shen说。
Hapag-Lloyd,OOCL(东方海外)的又一合作伙伴,在去年同样购买了10艘13,200TEU集装箱船,这正说明了shen所阐述的观点。这同样指出了一个事实,中型企业必须通过合并或共享船舶协议共同经营去跟上三大航运企业的脚步,这三大企业在运价和需求增加的情况下通过大型货运获得了巨大利润,就如它们2010所做的。
     一份OOCL就购买大型集装箱船的解释的描述中表明了航运公司集中注意力在2013年这段时间,也是经营成本战争真正开始的时候。
    OOCL透露:“这些大型船只的订购也反映了在集装运输动力方面的重大变化,燃油价格的持续增长已导致了每个标准箱的生产成本大大超过了资本成本。船用燃料的成本是决定船只配置和部署的一个重要因素,同样掌握着运营决定,比如船速和货物选择。
    事实上,根据行业研究,OOCL估算,如果使用一艘容量为13,000TEU的集装箱船而不是用三艘4,500TEU集装箱船,有可能将节省40%的燃料费用。而不同的是,在一只集装箱船容量为13,000TEU,和8,000TEU,和4,500TEU中选一的话,只能节省25%。
    “我们把我们的订单以非常低的价格添加到现代船只上,这样可以改善我们的成本结构,变得更环保效率,确保了处理未来需求的灵活性。”APL的总公司nol在American shipper中告诉我们,并提到她们的大型货轮订单,其中包括20艘超过10,000标准箱的集装箱船,在2014年底交付,还有10艘14,000TEU集装箱船,其中5艘将得到MOL(APL行业合作伙伴)的特许。
      Hyundai, 又一个New World Alliance的合作伙伴,是最新加入战局的。于8月10日确认有一桩5艘13,500TEU集装箱船的订单,交付期从2013到2014.
      Hyundai的合伙承运人Hanjin航运说,在6月它将订购自己的5艘13,000TEU集装箱船,交货期最早从2012开始。Hanjind的联盟伙伴中远集团已经经营或有订购超过20艘载量大于10,000标准箱的货船。Hanjin已经运作了一系列5艘10,000TEU集装箱船。Big Ships Ahead.这里告诉我们这种大型集装箱船如何快速地已经站稳了脚跟。海事顾问Alphaliner告诉我们:12个月以前,世界20大航运公司的船只订购保持在376艘,约为320万TEU,截止今年八月中旬,订单额为413艘,约为370万TEU。即使去年全年交付不断,订单也只增加了15%。然而真正有趣的是,这些订单载重增加了500,000TEU,而船只只增加了34艘。在过去12个月的订单中,平均每艘集装箱船的载重达到了14,400TEU。重复一遍,那是这34艘集装箱船的平均载重。
    毫无疑问,Maersk航运公司特定的18,000TEU载重的集装箱船使这个平均水平有所提高,但仍不能完全说明平均载重如此之大的集装箱船订购。
    要明白,载重14,400TEU集装箱船几乎是现营运最大的集装箱船,而在去年,这只是新订购船只的平均载重。
    总的来说,这20家世界大型航运公司在2010年8月中旬订购的平均集装箱船载重为8,542标准箱。

(翻译:杨双艳  黄崇韧 张运鸿)
 

Source: American Shipper     Date Posted: 8/30/2011 2:24:29 PM

Top 20 container lines

Mid-size lines spearhead the latest wave of big-ship orders.

By Eric Johnson

   Backed into a corner by the changing dynamics of container shipping, a handful of the world’s top liner carriers finally made their move in the last 12 months.
   That is to say, they entered into the mega-vessel market, ordering ships of massive scale and equally massive cost. Fresh off industry-wide, record-breaking profits in 2010, these mid-sized lines have come out swinging.
   Freight rates have fallen and oil prices have spiked, but better not to let those short-term economic elements distract from the real news of 2011: the new influx of larger-than-life vessels now looming over the industry.
   Since American Shipper’s last Top 20 report (September 2010, pages 44-52) no fewer than five carriers who previously refrained from ordering vessels of 13,000 TEUs or larger have done so.
   The significance of who was doing the ordering should not be lost on anyone. APL, Hapag-Lloyd, Hanjin Shipping, Hyundai Merchant Marine and OOCL, which have in recent times stayed on the conservative side when it comes to ship ordering, have joined the big-ship fray. They join the big three in Europe — Maersk Line, Mediterranean Shipping Co. and CMA CGM — Chinese lines COSCO Container Lines and China Shipping, along with Zim and United Arab Shipping Co., as lines that either operate or have on order vessels of such size.

Highlights of 2010 results

• A new overhang of overcapacity looms as mid-sized carriers have jumped into the mega-vessel market.

• While the ratio of ordered-to-existing capacity is reasonable on a historic level, the new wave of ordered ships threatens to shift the supply balance into shippers’ favor.

• Not all top lines are truly global, but they are working to fill gaps in their network.

• Intra-Asia is growing substantially but likely doesn’t have the revenue potential to save lines from loss-making on east/west trades.

• Major consolidation is hard to envision, with lines likely focusing on profitability.

   The raft of big-ship orders in recent months raises some questions. Were the orders proactive or reactive? Will they truly help these lines compete with Europe’s big three in terms of per-slot operating costs?
   “Having these large vessels can help us to compete with our competition on a level playing field,” Stanley Shen, director of investor relations for OOCL parent company OOIL, told American Shipper in August.
   OOCL ordered 10 13,000-TEU vessels between March and May, with four to be chartered to NYK Line, its partner in the Grand Alliance.
   “When consortia partners order the same size vessels, then it would be easier for us to mix and match our service loops with like ships,” Shen said.
   That Hapag-Lloyd, OOCL’s partner in the Grand Alliance, has also ordered 10 13,200-TEU vessels in the last year speaks to Shen’s point. It also speaks to the fact that mid-sized lines must pool their resources via alliances and vessel sharing agreements to keep up with the big three lines, whose bigger fleets translate into bumper profits when rates and demand rise as they did in 2010.
   An OOCL presentation on the justification for ordering such large ships shows how lines are eyeing the period from 2013 onward as the time when the operational cost battle will begin in earnest.
   “The ordering of these mega-container vessels reflects the fundamental change in liner business dynamics, being that the sustained increase in fuel prices has seen operating cost outweigh capital cost per TEU,” OOCL said. “The cost of bunker fuel is a significant factor in decisions about fleet configuration and deployment, as well as driving operational decisions such as vessel speed and cargo selection.”

   Indeed, based on industry research, OOCL calculates it would save 40 percent on bunker costs by sailing a 13,000-TEU vessel rather than three 4,500-TEU ships. The difference is 25 percent between a 13,000-TEU ship and one 8,000-TEU and one 4,500-TEU ship.
   “We placed our order to add modern vessels to the fleet at very low prices so that we can improve our cost structure, be more environmentally efficient and assure flexibility in dealing with future demand,” APL parent company NOL told American Shipper about its own orders for mega-vessels, which include 20 ships of greater than 10,000 TEUs, due for delivery through 2014, and 10 14,000-TEU ships. Five of the 14,000-TEU vessels will be chartered to MOL, APL’s partner in the New World Alliance.
   Hyundai, the other New World Alliance partner, was the latest to join the fray, on Aug. 10 confirming an order for five 13,500-TEU vessels for delivery from 2013 to 2014.
   Hyundai’s compatriot carrier Hanjin Shipping said in June it would order five of its own 13,000-TEU vessels, with deliveries to start from early 2012. Hanjin’s CKYH Alliance partner COSCO operates or has on order more than 20 vessels larger than 10,000 TEUs. Hanjin already operates a series of five 10,000-TEU ships.

Big Ships Ahead. Here’s a view into just how quickly the big-ship phenomenon has taken hold. Twelve months ago, the order book for the top 20 lines stood at 376 ships, representing nearly 3.2 million TEUs, according to maritime consultant Alphaliner. As of mid-August this year, the order book stood at 413 ships, representing 3.7 million TEUs.
   That’s a nearly 15 percent increase in the order book, even as deliveries have steadily occurred throughout the last year. But the really interesting part comes when you divide the roughly 500,000 TEUs added to the order book by the 34 vessels added. You get an average vessel size ordered in the last 12 months of about 14,400 TEUs. Again, that’s the average for 34 ships.
   For sure, Maersk Line’s much ballyhooed order for 18,000-TEU vessels skews that average toward the high side, but not enough to fully account for such a startlingly high average vessel size on order.
   Bear in mind, a 14,400-TEU ship would be amongst the biggest in operation today. In the last year, it’s been the average size of newly ordered ships.
   In total, the average vessel on order from the Top 20 carriers was 8,542 TEUs in mid-August 2010.

来源:American shipper