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德鲁里:海员职业吸引力下降,人才流失快,企业用工难

作者:   发布时间:2020-10-20    浏览量:357   字体大小:  A+   A- 

德鲁里:海员职业吸引力下降,人才流失快,企业用工难
图片来自网络,版权属于原作者

来源:Offshore Energy 2020-10-19

翻译:国际海事信息网 黄子倩 张运鸿
 
        海员对新人的吸引力已经大不如前。德鲁里认为,这会导致全球性的海员短缺。
 
        今年早些时候,德鲁里预测虽有新冠疫情在前,但因海员职业吸引力下降,人力/泊位比例(man-berth ratios)上升,因此全球海员的短缺情况仍会加剧。
 
        海员职业吸引力下降会使海员供应放缓,而延长休假、减少海员履职时间可以维持海员职业的吸引力,增加海员供应。
 
        这对船舶运营商的招聘、留用、人力成本会产生很大影响,尤其是人力成本,由于海员供应紧缩,人力成本预计会上涨。受新冠疫情影响,全球航运企业的人力成本都异常高昂。
 
        一些特殊等级、特殊国籍的海员未来的供给形势更加严峻。德鲁里表示,虽然当今劳动力市场供需关系相对平衡,但部分等级的海员相较于其他等级更加供不应求。
 
        作为研究的一部分,德鲁里对招聘不同国籍海员的企业进行了调查。涉及到的海员包括:高级海员(船长、大副、轮机长、大管轮),普通海员(二副、三副、二管轮、三管轮),甲板部和轮机部分开调查。
 
        受访对象需要根据海员的雇佣容易程度来评定海员的供需情况。这里分为四种情况:有立等可用人员;有可用人员;很少有可用人员;完全没有可用人员。
 
        调查发现,不同等级、国籍的海员供需情况差异巨大,特别是在劳动力市场不断紧缩的形势下,这给企业的招聘、留用和薪资水平带来了很大影响。
 
        总体来说,轮机部海员比甲板部海员供应紧张,高级海员比普通海员供应紧张。这意味着大管轮和船舶电子电气员(Electro Technological Officer, ETO)以及集装箱审图工程师(Cargo Engineer)、煤气工程师(Gas Engineer)较为短缺。虽然海上工种需求低迷,但动力定位操作员(Dynamic Positioning Operator, DPO)却需求紧张。
 
        德鲁里补充道:“然而,总体情况表明,雇主雇佣海员要灵活,并要从不同地区招聘海员,以应对招募特定等级/国籍的海员时会遇到的供应短缺问题。”
 
       (本文版权归国际海事信息网所有,图片版权归原作者,转载请注明出处。)
 
Drewry: Growing unattractiveness of seafaring career to tighten officer availability
 
A career at sea has lost much of its capacity to attract newcomers. This could lead to the global shortage of seafarers, Drewry believes.
 
Earlier this year, Drewry projected that the current officer shortfall to crew the global merchant fleet would widen, despite the dampening effect of COVID-19, due to the reduced attractiveness of a career at sea and rising man-berth ratios.
 
The effect of the former will be to slow the growth of seafarer supply, while extended leave periods and reduced tours of duty to maintain the attractiveness of a career at sea, will raise demand.
 
As explained, this has important implications for ship operator recruitment and retention practices, as well as manning costs, which are projected to rise as a result of tightening seafarer supply conditions. This will follow a year of exceptional costs associated with the impacts of COVID-19 on crewing operations around the world.
 
These projections are more acute when anticipating future availability of particular ranks or nationalities. Even today in a relatively balanced labour market some ranks are already in tighter supply than others, according to Drewry.
 
As part of a research, the shipping consultancy undertook a survey among employers of officers across a range of nationalities. This covered senior officers (master, chief officer and chief engineer, 2nd engineer) for deck and engine respectively, and junior officers (2nd, 3rd officer and 3rd, 4th engineer), again deck and engine respectively.
 
Respondents were asked to rate the availability in terms of how easy new hires are to recruit in the current market. There were four categories to select from: immediately available, usually available, scarce and not available.
 
The survey found that officer availability varies significantly by nationality and rank, with important implications for recruitment, retention and wage rates, particularly in light of tightening labour market conditions.
 
Generally, engineer ranks are in tighter supply than deck positions, and roles in senior rank positions are harder to fill than junior ranks. This means that 2nd Engineers are often noted to be in tight supply along with ETO (Electro Technological Officer) and Cargo (Gas) Engineers. Despite the downturn in the offshore vessel sector DPO (Dynamic Positioning Operator) ranks are also noted to be in tight supply.
 
“The overall picture built up does, however, show the importance of employers being flexible and keeping in mind the option of recruiting seafarers from other regions to combat any particular shortage of supply they may experience for a particular rank / nationality combination,” Drewry added.

来源:simic